In previous versions of Vis5D, it was standard practice to put one's data into a McIDAS GR3D file, then compress it with comp5d prior to using vis5d.
While directly converting to the v5d format is prefered, we still include this information on the McIDAS format. If you don't want to put your data into McIDAS files, you may skip to chapter 5 now.
We recommend against this way of getting your data into Vis5d. Instead, use the techniques described in chapter 3 of this manual.
A McIDAS GR3D file contains a sequence of 3-D grids of data. The three- dimensional grids are organized into short sequences to enumerate the values of multiple physical variables at a single time. The short sequences of physical variables are repeated into a longer sequence which steps through many time steps. These files have a names of the form GR3Dnnnn where nnnn is a 4-digit number between 0001 and 9999. The McIDAS utility programs then refer to files only by a number (1 through 9999).
A 3D grid file contains a directory entry for each 3D grid, which describes the size and geographic location of the grid, and the date, time and name of physical variable of the data in the grid array. A five-dimensional data set consists of a sequence of 3D grids in a 3D grid file, all with the same size and geographic locations. The grid sequence repeats the same short sequence of physical variables stepping forward through time. For example, the grid sequence from a weather model could be:
|GRID NUMBER||DATE||TIME||PHYSICAL VARIABLE NAME|
This data set consists of 3 time steps of 5 physical variables. The physical variables are the U, V and W components of the wind vector, the temperature T and the pressure P. The date is February 4, 1988 and the time steps are midnight, 1 AM and 2 AM. Dates are in YYDDD format and times are in HHMMSS format as described earlier.
The following sample program creates a 3D grid file and fills its 3D grids with data for a five-dimensional data set. This program can be found in the file sample.F, it's makefile is sample.m. The easiest way to read your data into a 3D grid file is to alter the sample.F program. The subroutines it calls are all in the libmain.a library, and their source is in the src subdirectory. Here is a listing of sample.F:
1 C THE MAIN PROGRAM OF YOUR CONVERSION PROGRAM MUST 2 C BE NAMED SUBROUTINE MAIN0 3 C 4 SUBROUTINE MAIN0 5 C 6 C THE NEXT TWO COMMENTS ARE PRINTED BY THE 'help sample' COMMAND 7 C ? SAMPLE program to convert data to 3D grid files 8 C ? sample gridf# 9 C 10 C DIMENSIONS OF 3D GRID 11 C NOTE NLATS AND NLONS MUST BOTH BE LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 150 12 C NLATS, NLONS AND NHGTS MUST ALL BE AT LEAST 2 13 PARAMETER (NLATS=31,NLONS=51,NHGTS=16) 14 C 15 C NUMBER OF PHYSICAL VARIABLES AND NUMBER OF TIME STEPS 16 C NOTE EITHER OR BOTH MAY BE EQUAL TO 1. THAT IS, Vis5D DOES 17 C NOT FORCE YOU TO HAVE MULTIPLE VARIABLES OR TIME DYNAMICS. 18 PARAMETER (NVARS=5,NTIMES=100) 19 C 20 C ARRAY FOR 3D GRID DATA 21 REAL*4 G(NLATS, NLONS, NHGTS) 22 C ARRAYS FOR GRID FILE ID AND GRID DIRECTORY 23 INTEGER ID(8), IDIR(64) 24 C ARRAY FOR VARIABLE NAMES 25 CHARACTER*4 CNAME(5) 26 C 27 C LATITUDE, LONGITUDE AND HEIGHT BOUNDS FOR SPATIAL GRID 28 DATA XLATS/20.0/,XLATN/50.0/ 29 DATA XLONE/70.0/,XLONW/120.0/ 30 DATA XHGTB/0.0/,XHGTT/15.0/ 31 C 32 C STARTING DATE IN YYDDD AND TIME IN HHMMSS 33 DATA JDAY/88035/,JTIME/020000/ 34 C TIME STEP IN HHMMSS 35 DATA JSTEP/000100/ 36 C 37 C NAMES OF THE FIVE PHYSICAL VARIABLES 38 DATA CNAME/'U ', 'V ', 'W ', 'T ', 'P '/ 39 C INITIALIZE GRID DIRECTORY TO ZEROS 40 DATA IDIR/64*0/ 41 C 42 C READ GRID FILE NUMBER FROM COMMAND LINE. IPP WILL 43 C CONVERT THE PARAMETER # 1 TO AN INTEGER, WITH A DEFAULT 44 C VALUE OF 0. 45 IGRIDF=IPP(1,0) 46 C IF ILLEGAL GRID FILE NUMBER, PRINT ERROR MESSAGE AND RETURN 47 IF(IGRIDF .LT. 1 .OR. IGRIDF .GT. 9999) THEN 48 CALL EDEST('BAD GRID FILE NUMBER ',IGRIDF) 49 CALL EDEST('MUST BE BETWEEN 1 AND 9999 ',0) 50 RETURN 51 ENDIF 52 C 53 C CALCULATE GRID INTERVALS 54 XLATIN=(XLATN-XLATS)/(NLATS-1) 55 XLONIN=(XLONW-XLONE)/(NLONS-1) 56 XHGTIN=(XHGTT-XHGTB)/(NHGTS-1) 57 C 58 C DATE AND TIME FOR FIRST TIME STEP 59 C IDAYS CONVERTS YYDDD FORMAT TO DAYS SINCE JAN. 1, 1900 60 IDAY=IDAYS(JDAY) 61 C ISECS CONVERTS HHMMSS FORMAT TO SECONDS SINCE MIDNIGHT 62 ISEC=ISECS(JTIME) 63 C 64 C INITIALIZE GRID IDENTIFIER TEXT TO BLANKS 65 C NOTE LIT CONVERTS A CHARACTER*4 TO AN INTEGER*4 66 DO 10 I=1,8 67 10 ID(I)=LIT(' ') 68 C 69 C SET UP DIRECTORY ENTRY 70 C 71 C DIMENSIONS OF GRID 72 IDIR(1)=NLATS*NLONS*NHGTS 73 IDIR(2)=NLATS 74 IDIR(3)=NLONS 75 IDIR(4)=NHGTS 76 C 77 C LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES IN DEGREES * 10000 78 IDIR(22)=4 79 IDIR(23)=NINT(XLATN*10000.) 80 IDIR(24)=NINT(XLONW*10000.) 81 IDIR(25)=NINT(XLATIN*10000.0) 82 IDIR(26)=NINT(XLONIN*10000.0) 83 C 84 C HEIGHTS IN METERS 85 IDIR(31)=1 86 IDIR(32)=NINT(XHGTT*1000.) 87 IDIR(33)=NINT(XHGTIN*1000.) 88 C 89 C CREATE THE GRID FILE 90 CALL IGMK3D(IGRIDF, ID, NLATS*NLONS*NHGTS) 91 C 92 C LOOP FOR TIME STEPS 93 DO 200 IT=1,NTIMES 94 C 95 C SET DATE AND TIME IN DIRECTORY ENTRY 96 C IYYDDD CONVERTS DAYS SINCE JAN. 1, 1900 TO OUR YYDDD FORMAT 97 IDIR(6)=IYYDDD(IDAY) 98 C IHMS CONVERTS SECONDS SINCE MIDNIGHT TO OUR HHMMSS FORMAT 99 IDIR(7)=IHMS(ISEC) 100 C 101 C LOOP FOR PHYSICAL VARIABLES 102 DO 190 IV=1,NVARS 103 C 104 C SET VARIABLE NAME IN DIRECTORY ENTRY 105 IDIR(9)=LIT(CNAME(IV)) 106 C 107 C ************************************************************* 108 C READ YOUR DATA FOR TIME STEP NUMBER IT AND VARIABLE NUMBER IV 109 C INTO THE ARRAY G HERE. 110 C NOTE THAT G(1,1,1) IS THE NORTH WEST BOTTOM CORNER AND 111 C G(NLATS,NLONS,NHGTS) IS THE SOUTH EAST TOP CORNER. 112 C MARK A GRID POINT AS 'MISSING DATA' BY SETTING IT = 1.0E35 113 C ************************************************************* 114 C 115 C CALCULATE 3D GRID NUMBER 116 IGRID=IV+NVARS*(IT-1) 117 C WRITE DATA IN G AND DIRECTORY IN IDIR TO 3D GRID 118 C NOTE WE PASS THE NEGATIVE OF THE GRID NUMBER (I.E. -IGRID) 119 CALL IGPT3D(IGRIDF,-IGRID,G,NLATS,NLONS,NHGTS,IDIR,IGNO) 120 C 121 C END OF PHYSICAL VARIABLE LOOP 122 190 CONTINUE 123 C 124 C INCREMENT DATE AND TIME, CONVERT JSTEP FROM HHMMSS TO SECONDS 125 ISEC=ISEC+ISECS(JSTEP) 126 C IF SECONDS CARRY PAST ONE DAY, ADJUST SECONDS AND DAYS 127 IDAY=IDAY+ISEC/(24*3600) 128 ISEC=MOD(ISEC,24*3600) 129 C 130 C END OF TIME STEP LOOP 131 200 CONTINUE 132 C 133 RETURN 134 END
The routines IGMK3D and IGPT3D are the interface to the 3D grid structures. The call to IGMK3D at line 90 creates a 3D grid file. Its parameters are:
|1||INTEGER*4 - number of 3D grid file to create|
|2||array of 8 INTEGER*4 - a 32 byte text ID for the file|
|3||INTEGER*4 - maximum number of grid points in any 3D grid.|
After the 3D grid file is created, IGPT3D is called in line 119 once for each combination of time step and physical variable to put 3D grids into the file. Its parameters are:
|1||INTEGER*4 - number of 3D grid file to write to|
|2||INTEGER*4 - minus the number of the 3D grid to write. This is 0 or positive to indicate write to next empty grid.|
|3||array of REAL*4 - array of grid points to write|
|4||INTEGER*4 - first dimension of grid array, # of latitudes|
|5||INTEGER*4 - second dimension of grid array, # of longitudes|
|6||INTEGER*4 - third dimension of grid array, # of heights|
|7||array of 64 INTEGER*4 - directory for 3D grid|
|8||INTEGER*4 - number of 3D grid actually written, returned by IGPT3D.|
Vis5D allows data sets which span more than one 3D grid file. In this case the grid sequence of repeating variables and repeating time steps continues across grid file boundaries. A single 3D grid file is limited to 100,000,000 grid points (400 megabytes). If your data set contains more than this number of grid points, then you should alter sample.F to create a new 3D grid file (by incrementing IGRIDF and calling IGMK3D) on every Nth time step, where N time steps will fit in one 3D grid file. Note that the comp5d command described in chapter 5 references data sets as sequences of 3D grid files.
The Vis5D system processes the gridded data based on the information in the grid directories, which is contained in the IDIR array in the sample.F program. It is a good idea to initialize IDIR to all zeros, as in line 40. The size of the 3D grid is set in entries 1 to 4 of IDIR (lines 72 to 75). Note the restrictions on data set size described in section 4.2 of this document.
The date and time of the 3D grid are set in entries 6 and 7 of IDIR, as in lines 97 and 99. Note that they are represented in our YYDDD and HHMMSS formats described above. Four functions are available in libmain.a for converting between these formats and a format which makes date and time calculations easy. The IDAYS function converts YYDDD format to days since January 1, 1900, as in line 60. The ISECS function converts HHMMSS format to seconds since midnight, as in lines 62 and 125. This makes it easy to do calculations with dates and times, as in lines 125, 127 and 128. Then the IYYDDD function converts days back to YYDDD and the IHMS function converts back to HHMMSS, as in lines 97 amd 99.
The physical variable name is 4 ASCII characters packed into entry 9 of IDIR, as in line 105. The LIT function in libmain.a converts a CHARACTER*4 to an INTEGER*4.
The spatial location of the grid is described in terms of latitude and longitude in ten-thousandths of a degree, and in terms of height (altitude) in meters. The grid element G(1,1,1) is in the north west bottom corner of the grid, and the grid element G(NLATS,NLONS,NHGTS) is in the south east top corner. The grid latitude and longitude are described in entries 21 to 25 of IDIR, as in lines 78 to 82. The grid heights are described in entries 31 to 33, as in lines 85 to 87. The NINT function is a FORTRAN intrinsic for converting a REAL to the nearest INTEGER. The latitude, longitude and height spacings are simply the distances between between successive grid points. Latitudes are positive in the northern hemisphere, longitudes are positive in the western hemispere, and of course heights are positive above sea level.
The real work in modifying the sample.F program is writing code for getting your data into the G array, in lines 107 to 113. For some data you may want to fake the latitude, longitude and height coordinates. However, if your data is geographical and large scale, then you may want to describe its location accurately, and it may be necessary to resample your data to a regularly spaced grid in latitude, longitude and height from some other map projection. It may also be necessary to transpose your data array to get the index order to be LAT, LON and HGT, and to invert your data array in some index to make sure G(1,1,1) is the north west bottom corner. Even in faked coordinates, you may need to transpose or invert your data array to get the right 'handedness' in the display. The Vis5D system allows grid points marked as missing, indicated by array values greater than 1.0E30. If you do fake the latitude, longitude and height coordinates, then the topography and map display of the vis5d program will be meaningless. If you calculate trajectories for your data set, either use accurate coordinates, or take great care to get relative time, distance and velocity scales consistent in the faked coordinates. Otherwaise trajectory paths will not be realistic.
The IPP function in libmain.a returns the value of a command parameter as INTEGER*4, as in line 45. There are similar functions CPP and DPP in libmain.a which return CHARACTER*12 (converted to upper case) and REAL*8 values for command parameters. They get command parameters based on their sequential position in the command line. They all have similar function parameters:
|INTEGER*4 - sequence number of command parameter|
|(IPP) INTEGER*4 - default value of command parameter|
|(CPP) CHARACTER*12 - default value of command parameter|
|(DPP) REAL*8 - default value of command parameter.|
There is also a mechanism for picking up command parameters based on keywords. This is done with the functions IKWP, CKWP and DKWP in libmain.a. They get command parameters based on position after a keyword of the form -keyword. IKWP returns an INTEGER*4, CKWP returns a CHARACTER*12 (converted to upper case) and DKWP returns a REAL*8. They all have similar function parameters:
|CHARACTER*12 - keyword string in command line|
|INTEGER*4 - sequence number of command parameter after keyword|
|(IKWP) INTEGER*4 - default value of command parameter|
|(CKWP) CHARACTER*12 - default value of command parameter|
|(DKWP) REAL*8 - default value of command parameter.|
The NKWP function in libmain.a returns the number of sequential parameters after a keyword. Its function parameter is:
On the most machines the REAL*4 format is not a subset of the REAL*8 format, so make sure to declare DPP and DKWP as REAL*8, as well as their third function parameters (for default values of command parameters).
If you would rather write your grid conversion program in C instead of FORTRAN, look at the file sample.c. It contains examples of how to easily read and write grid files using C structures and routines in stdio.